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Camp Emerald Bay Patch History

The First Fifty Years – 1925-1975

by Dr. Jeff Morley (Staff ’68)

Camp Emerald Bay opened in 1925 with the purpose of providing
a high adventure aquatic experience for the Boy Scouts of the Crescent
Bay Council. The original council boundaries included the seaside
communities of Santa Monica, and Venice Beach, the artist colonies
of Malibu, Topanga Canyon and Pacific Palisades; the academic community
of Westwood and the back-lot and residential areas of the fledging
Movie industry in Culver City and Beverly Hills.

Crescent Bay Council was incorporated in 1922. It merged with
San Fernando Valley Council in 1972 to become the Great Western
Council and more recently, what is now known as the Western Los
Angeles County Council. Prior to the opening of EB, the Council
operated two additional camps: Camp Temescal (now the site of Palisades
High School) and Camp Slauson in Topanga Canyon. The popularity
of Emerald Bay eliminated the need for Camp Temescal, which subsequently
closed around 1930. Camp Slauson had a loyal following and remained
open as a summer camp and weekend camp until the late 1970’s. Camp
patches from Emerald Bay date back to the inaugural year of summer
camping on Catalina Island.

The first patch was a simple monogram style felt patch composed
of 3 parts. The first part is a Tee-pee that symbolizes camping.
This Tee-pee is above the letter "V" which stood for "Veteran".
These symbols are surrounded by a crescent "C" which
represented Crescent Bay Council, the original owner of Camp Emerald
Bay. This logo was used on various pins and patches issued by the
Council throughout the 1920’s.

The Camp Veteran system preceded the Good Camper program. It is
not clear whether the term "Veteran" referred to a special
rank or honor or simply meant that the Scout had completed a week
at camp. Whatever the meaning, the Veteran designation at EB was
replaced with the Good Camper program in 1929 but continued at
Camp Slauson well into the 1950’s. It is highly likely that this
same patch was also used for camping at the other Crescent Bay
Council Camps, which included Camp Temescal and Camp Slauson in
Topanga Canyon.

Notes on the First EB patch
There is still some discussion as to whether or not this patch
was used both years at EB. No other patch for 1926 was ever reported
by the "old timers" and to date, no other specific
patch for 1926 is known to exist.

This felt patch was likely used for camping at all of the council
camps as well as Camp Emerald Bay. The Crescent Bay Camping Veteran
logo makes up the design. In all likelihood, only those Scouts
and Scouters who met specific requirements received a patch.
The Camp Veteran program had different degrees or honors. During
the late 1920’s the council issued the Camping Veteran logo in
the form of cloisonné pins. The pins came in different
colors and were meant to be worn on the patch directly over the
Camping Veteran logo or on the sash.

The phrase: "Crescent Bay Camp" is used on this patch.
This suggests again that the patch was available for camping at
Emerald Bay as well as the other Crescent Bay Camps: Slauson and
Temescal. The graphics and colors of this year’s patch are difficult
to see. The totem appears to be a Ram or Long Horn Sheep. What
this specific totem may have had to do with Camp Emerald Bay is


This is the first patch that actually says "Emerald Bay".
It was probably available to any Scout that camped on the Island
during 1929. However, while this patch may have served as a souvenir
of camping at EB, it certainly did not carry the status and prestige
afforded by wearing the "Good Camper" patch.

Good Camper

This year marks the first documented evidence of the Good Camper
Award. The design continues the use of the Camping Veteran symbol.
Perhaps this patch was also awarded at Camps Slauson and Temescal.
This particular design of a Tee pee over a canoe was used in other
parts of the country. The camps from Brooklyn, NY issued similarly
designed patches during the 1920’s and 30’s.

There are no known examples of a patch from this year for Camp
Emerald Bay or any of the other Crescent Bay camps. It is rumored
that the patch used was similar to the 1929 Good Camper patch
with the exception that it was made on green felt. According
to the recollections of the late Bill Van Slyke (1929 EB staff),
a patch fitting this description was made up in 1970 for display
purpose on the original Emerald Bay Patch Board. However, over
seventy years later, the existence of a patch for the camp in
1930 remains a mystery. It is possible that the patch known to
be used at EB during 1931 and 1932 was actually first used during
the 1930 camping season. Since the EB patch used during the 1931-32
seasons is undated, it is uncertain which years it may have been

The same patch was used as a good camper award for both years.
The design incorporates the Crescent and the Tee-pee but replaces
the "V" with a canoe. During this era, if a Scout did
not meet the Good Camper requirements during the camping session,
he probably did not get any patch for attending camp. This tradition
of only awarding camp patches to the Scouts that achieved Good
Camper status continued through the 1946 summer camping season.
These "Good Camper" badges were akin to a high school
letter. Only those that qualified received the insignia.

The Great Depression made patches a luxury for most Scouts. This
year, Scouts at camp probably made their own patch out of leather
in the handicraft lodge. One story has it that a specific design
of a pirate’s treasure chest was made up by the Camp Staff and
tooling the patch was actually one of the requirements to earn
the Good Camper award. It is interesting to note that the use
of the treasure chest design marks the first time that the pirate/nautical
theme is used at Camp Emerald Bay. A skull and crossed-bones
is used for the time.

The pirate logo is used for the very first time and the origins
of the Symbol of Camp Emerald Bay can be traced back to this
point. Because of its size, this patch was probably designed
for wear on the Scout sash and not the shirt pocket. It was likely
that troops put their own troop number on the pirate’s hat. The
example shown is from the Scouts of Troop 51, Beverly Hills.
The practice of identifying your troop number was used at other
BSA camps around the country during the 1930’s. Another theory
says that during 1933 and 1934, large troop contingents made
their own troop patches for camping at EB. This patch is known
to come in 2 minor varieties.

The pirate motif seemed quite popular. The design was copied in
a smaller version for the 1935 patch. The troop number on the
pirate’s hat was replaced with the traditional skull and crossed-bones.
This symbol went on to become the official totem of Camp Emerald
Bay twelve years later.

In keeping with the nautical theme, a skipper’s wheel is used for
the design of this year’s patch. Once again, the patch seemed
to be reserved for those scouts meeting the Good Camper requirements.
While the use of a pirate totem was considered popular, the pirate
was not to be officially chosen as the EB camp mascot until 1947.

The treasure chest design is a return to the design used in 1933.
According to Joel Stearns (Camp Josepho Staff 1941, Tamet Lodge
Chief 1946 and EB attendee in 1937), the earning and wearing
of the EB patch meant special status and prestige amongst one’s

The anchor fits with the nautical theme of Camp Emerald Bay during
the 1930’s. Clearly, the reputation of EB as the premier aquatic
camp on the west coast was becoming well known. Troops from many
other councils in the Southland were sending contingents. Within
the Council, some Crescent Bay troops had camped at Emerald Bay
six to ten summers in a row. There was probably interest within
the council to find additional camping facilities to provide
other types of adventure experiences for scouts.

The sea horse design of this patch indicates that camp staff had
still not settled on the pirate as mascot of Camp Emerald Bay.
1939 also marked the opening of Crescent Bay’s newest wilderness
camp: High Sierra (later to become known as Camp Wolverton).
Some EB staff members were recruited by camp High Sierra and
a few troops attended the camp that year. However, Camp Emerald
Bay remained immensely popular and had a great season in 1939.

Around this time, Camp Emerald Bay offered a special award for
Camping. Each camp session, a medal was awarded for the distinction
of "Best Scout". After the end of the camping season,
a competition was held between the "Best Scout" recipients.
The winner received a gold medal known as the "Jim Price" award
in honor of the scout by the same name.

Word spread about the new camping experience in Sequoia National
Park and the program at Camp High Sierra was expanded for the
1940 season. In order to accommodate the increased demand of
troops that wanted to spend a week at the new camp, the staff
was increased. Many of these staff members came from the ranks
of the EB staff. In response to the lessening demand, sessions
at EB were reduced during 1940 and very few troops actually camped
there that summer. The patch used was a light blue felt patch
with a fish design. This patch was seen many times during the
1960’s but has somehow disappeared from view. Currently, there
are no known examples in collections. Stories and rumors that
Camp Emerald Bay was closed during 1940 are unfounded and lack
supporting evidence.

The big event of the camping season in 1941 was the much-anticipated
opening of Camp Josepho. Dubbed: "The West Point of Scouting",
Camp Josepho was hailed as the most spectacular Scout camp in
the west. To be selected as a staff member for the new camp was
probably considered the highest distinction awarded by Crescent
Bay Council. Remaining EB staff that had not previously defected
to High Sierra were called upon to organize the opening summer
of Camp Josepho. Staff members from Camp High Sierra were also
needed to handle the huge number of Scouts that wanted to camp
at Josepho in its inaugural season. This effectively closed down
both EB and HS for large scale troop camping in 1941. However,
both camps were probably still open by permit during the summer.
For reasons currently unknown, Camp High Sierra changed its name
to Camp Sequoia during this year. Camp Emerald Bay probably had
limited camping operations. Patches were available for troops
camping at both camps. The Emerald Bay patch was the same shape
and size as the Camp Josepho patch. The design marked a return
to the pirate theme utilizing a skull and crossed swords. Needless
to say, the 1941 patches from Camp Sequoia and Camp Emerald Bay
are extremely rare.

The evidence does not support reports that Camp Emerald Bay was
completely closed in the summer of 1941. If, in fact, the Navy
had taken over Catalina Island in June of 1941, (a full 6 months
prior to the bombing of Pearl Harbor), it raises some very interesting
contradictions in American History. The commonly held belief that
the Japanese perpetrated a surprise attack on the United States
on December 7, 1941 would be suspect if it were known that the
Military was actually preparing for war by taking over Catalina
Island months before the attack. This interesting chapter of American
history intertwines with the history of Camp Emerald Bay.

Catalina Island was closed to all civilian personnel during these
years. Camp Emerald Bay and Camp Sequoia were shut down. All
council camping operations were transferred to Camp Josepho and
possibly Camp Slauson. Camp Sequoia was accessible by car but
wartime gas rationing made the trip impractical.

With World War II over, Crescent Bay Council opened all 4 camps
(EB, Josepho, Sequoia and Slauson) for the 1946 season. Camp
Sequoia changed its name to Camp Wolverton. Camp Emerald Bay
reopened with a limited camp schedule. A treasure map design
was used. The patch was probably available only to those Scouts
that earned the Good Camper award.


Apparently, it was decided that all Scouts attending camp were
entitled to a camp patch. The pirate design used during 1934 and
1935 was officially chosen as the mascot of Camp Emerald Bay and
continues to this day. This patch design on white felt has no writing
on it and did not seem to be very popular. A cartoon-like caricature
of the pirate, nicknamed the "Crazy Pirate", was part
of a grander theme for all of the mascots used at Crescent Bay
Camps after WWII. Camp Wolverton used the "Hamm’s Bear";
Camp Slauson used the Disney version of "Bambi" and Camp
Josepho adopted "Crazy Joe the wild Indian" as it’s mascot.

Good Camper

The same pirate design was used for the Good Camper patch, which
was issued on yellow felt. The addition of writing indicated that
the patch was from Camp Emerald Bay. The 1947 Good Camper patch
is easily distinguishable from other similar EB patches made of
yellow felt because it does not have a black border around it.
Additionally, there are extra black details on the skull and crossed-bones.


Starting in 1948, the EB patch was issued in 3 different colors:
yellow, white and blue. This was in keeping with the Camp Josepho
and Camp Wolverton patches from the same years. The exact purpose
of these colors remains a mystery. One theory has it that yellow
was for the 1st year at camp, white was for the 2nd year and blue
signified the 3rd year. It is also possible the meaning of the
three-color system changed between 1947 and 1953 when it went out
of use. Interviews with EB camp attendees and staff members from
these years that actually earned the patches suggests the colors
might have been given out randomly at some point.

None-the-less, the 1948 series is easily distinguishable from
all other years because the patches have a double ring black border.
They are also larger around (3 ½ inches) than the patches
from subsequent years.


The design, which came in all three colors, yellow, white and blue,
now has a single black border around it and is a standard three-inch
size. This year’s patches can be distinguished from other years
because the earring on the pirate’s left ear (right ear as you
look at the patch) is solidly filled in with red. No other EB patches
from this era are like that. It is highly likely that other varieties
of EB patches from the 1950 Series may have been used this year
as well.

Series Good Camper

The design of this year’s patch shows an outlined red earring on
the pirate’s left ear. It is doubtful that these small design changes
were intentional. 1950 series patches can be distinguished from
similarly designed patches used in 1951 because they do not have
cotton backing. There are many minor varieties in all three colors
for this series of patches.


Similar to 1947, a patch was designed for those Scouts who attended
camp but did not earn the Good Camper patch. This patch was silk-screened
on canvass and described EB as an "Aquatic Camp". Truer
words were never spoken!

Staff Backing

A simple 3½-inch round, red felt backing worn behind the
Good Camper patch signified being on staff during the 1949-51 period.
Personal accounts and photographs of staff members taken during
these years document this practice. Based on known examples, only
Blue EB patches with red backing have surfaced. This suggests the
blue version of the patch may have also evolved as a staff patch
although this theory is only speculation. The red felt is plain
on both sides and does not have separate cotton-twill backing behind

Series Good Camper

This summer’s patches look like the 1950 series with exception
that they have cotton-twill backings. The extra backing made the
patches more rigid and presumably more durable to washing. Multiple
minor varieties exist in each color.


This is a remake of the 1950 camper patch except the date is added
and the patch is made of felt. The patch proved to be quite popular
as a souvenir from Camp Emerald Bay and represented what might
be called the Camp’s first "trading patch"

1951 (and possibly used through 1953) Adventure Patrol

A special program was developed during this summer to appeal to
the older Scouts in camp that were looking for a more challenging
experience. Each session, Senior Scouts from the various troop
encampments combined to form the Adventure Patrol. Tamet Lodge
chief and EB staff member, Lorin Tarvin, headed the original program.
Adventure Patrol proved extremely successful and was carried on
in subsequent years as the Rugged "E" program.


The pirate patch was redesigned without the "Good Camper" words
so that every Scout who attended camp could have the same EB patch.
Once again, the design was issued in yellow, white and blue felt.
The exact purpose of the three different colors remains a mystery.
According to the late Selwyn Douglas, troop Scoutmasters at EB
in 1952-53 were given an assortment of colors and passed out patches
to the Scouts in their troop according to individual preference.

Good Camper Backing

The practice of wearing a red backing behind the EB patch to signify
Camp Staff was adopted for the Good Camper Award. The large felt
red patches were actually made up with red cotton-twill backing
during these years and worn behind the camper patch.

Adventure Patrol

The success and reputation of the adventure patrol program continued
through the 1950’s. This neckerchief with a black felt ‘billy goat" became
the insignia. At some point, the name of the program was changed
to Rugged "E".

Starting this year, patches were made out of a cotton-twill material
instead of felt. Every scout received the Camp patch and segments
were available for staff and the Good Camper award. The pirate
mascot from earlier years continued to represent the emblem of
Camp Emerald Bay. EB staff member, Jack Halloran, designed the
first flap patch for Tamet Lodge No. 225, in 1954. The same green
and yellow color them is used for the OA patch, which has been
known as the legendary "Green Tamet" for over forty

1954 and 1956 Good Camper Strip
For those that earned Good Camper status, a separate strip or rocker
was available. This rocker was undated and was also used during

1954 and 1956 Staff Strip
Staff members similarly had an extra strip, which fit with the
colors of the 1954 and 1956 patches.

The same pirate design was used and the background color was changed
to blue.

1955 Good Camper Strip
This strip came in the same blue and yellow colors of the regular
issue camp patch.

1955 Staff Strip
This strip came in the same blue and yellow colors of the regular
issue camp patch.

1956 Type 1
This patch is very similar to the 1954 patch and has a cut edge
border. Apparently the supply of patches ran out near the end
of the summer and had to be reordered.

Type 2

A different company might have made the second order of patches
for this year. They have a rolled edge border and many other differences.

This patch is undated and was used for 2 years. The "Crazy
Pirate" (as some staff members have called this rendition
of the EB mascot used between 1947 and 1958) became the unique
and recognizable image of Camp Emerald Bay during the 1950’s and
then had a big comeback during the 1970’s.

1957 Camper Strip
Starting in this year, the strips were dated.

1957 Good Camper Strip Type 1
This dated strip has a yellow border and yellow lettering on green
twill. It was designed to be worn around the 1956 patch.

1957 Good Camper Strip Type 2
This is the same strip with a white border. It was designed to
be worn around the 1957 patch.

1958 Camper Strip
Extra supplies of the 1957 strips were overstitched to make the "7" into
an "8".

1958 Good Camper Strip
Again, unused strips from the 1957 season were overstitched to
make the 1958 strip.

1958 Staff patch
A large rocker available through National Supply was used for staff
recognition. It was worn over the camp patch on a neckerchief.
Many other camps used this same staff patch.


A redesigned patch was coordinated with a new design for the Camp
Wolverton patch as well. The camp mascot was retained in a reduced
size. The same patch was used for 3 years and may have been re-ordered
multiple times. There are two basic varieties. The "a" variety
is distinguished by its dark yellow rolled edge. Both red canoes
have a little red figure in them.

1959-61 B-variety
The "b" variety has a yellow flat rolled edge and the
upper canoe does not have a figure in it.

1959 Camper Strip
This same strip was used at Camp Emerald Bay and Camp Wolverton

1959 Good Camper Strip
Used at EB and Wolverton

1959 Staff Patch
A large rocker on blue twill was issued for wear on the staff neckerchief.
As for the previous summer, the patch was a generic National
Supply issue.

1960 Camper Strip
Used at EB and Wolverton.

1960 Good Camper Strip
Used at EB and Wolverton

1960 Staff Patch
This marks the last year that the National Supply Staff rocker
was worn

1961 Camper Strip
Used at EB and Wolverton

1961 Good Camper Strip
Used at EB and Wolverton

1961 Staff Patch
A separate felt pirate patch was used on a black neckerchief for
staff members

1962-63 A-variety
Once again, the patch was redesigned and for the first time since
1947, the pirate mascot was not used on the patch. The patch
comes in two basic varieties that have many minor differences.
The easiest way to distinguish them is by looking at the uppermost
white wave detail around the pirate ship. The "a" variety
has a flat rolled edge and the upper most wave detail is basically
a straight white line.

1962-63 B-variety
The "b" variety has a regular dark yellow rolled edge
and the upper most wave is a white zigzag line.

1962-63 Camper Strip
Strips for this patch have a yellow border and red lettering. Similar
colored strips were used during 1966-67. There are some very
minor differences between the different year that are actually
collected by some EB collectors.

1962-63 Good Camper Strip
This strip also has a yellow border and red letters. It was also
used during 1966-67 and can also be distinguished by several
minor differences.

1962 – 1970’s Staff Patch
A stock-issue pirate patch was used on a variety of different black
neckerchiefs during these years. This is a swiss-embroidered
patch and can be distinguished by a tan face and red horizontal
stitched hat.

The pirate mascot returns to Camp Emerald Bay’s first solid-embroidered
patch. It has a red border and yellow lettering.

1964-65 Staff Strip
Made to be worn below the camp patch

1964-65 Camper Strip
Meant to be worn below the patch, this strip has a red border and
yellow lettering.

1964-65 Good Camper Strip
This year’s strip also has a red border and yellow letters.

This yellow-bordered patch was used for three years. There are
several minor varieties.

1966-7 Camper Strip
This strip was very similar to the strips used during 1962-63.

1966-7 Good Camper Strip
Again, this strip was similar to the strips used in 1962-63.

1968 Camper Strip
Issued on white twill, yellow border and red lettering. This strip
was worn above the patch.

1968 Good Camper Strip
Issued on white twill, yellow border and red lettering. This strip
was worn above the patch.
This newly redesigned patch returned to the "crazy pirate" mascot
of the 1940’s and 50’s. The pirate was surrounded by a life preserver.
However, because of the small size of the patch and the border’s
close cropping of the life preserver, the lettering was distorted.
It appeared that the camp name said "LEMERALDI" instead
of "EMERALD". This patch was seen as a step backwards
from the patches of previous years and it was very unpopular.

1969 Camper Chevron
Made to be worn below the patch. It is distinguished from the 1971
chevron by the wide, spread-out letters.

1969 Good Camper Chevron
This strip is similar to the Camper chevron from the same year.
The letters are wide and the "O’s" in "GOOD" are

Type 1

The patch was enlarged slightly to correct the problems that existed
with the previous year’s patch. The type 1 patches had a golden
border and the supply ran out near the end of the camping season.

Type 2

Patches were reordered for the last session of camp. However, the
manufacturer mistakenly put a yellow border on the reordered emblems.
These patches were passed out to Scouts during the last camp session.
The type 2 1970 patch was made in very small quantities and is
actually quite rare.

1970 Camper Chevron
This rocker was made to be worn on the top of the patch.

1970 Good Camper Chevron
Similar to the Camper Chevron for the same year, designed to be
worn above the patch.

The patch was redesigned to make the life preserver look more like
a life preserver. This was to be the last Camp Emerald Bay patch
to be issued by the Crescent Bay Area Council.

1971 Camper Chevron
Meant to be worn below the patch, this chevron can be distinguished
from the 1969 strip by the compact narrow lettering.

1971 Good Camper Chevron
Similar to the Camper chevron for the same year and distinguished
from the 1969 strip by compact lettering. The "O’s" in "GOOD’
are oval shaped.

After exactly 50 years of operation, the Crescent Bay Area Council
merged with the San Fernando Valley Council. Control of Camp
Emerald Bay was transferred to the Great Western Council. The
new patch used the traditional "crazy pirate" mascot
from the 1940’s and 50’s. This patch was made in large quantities
and comes in several minor varieties including: white outlined
teeth, black teeth, thin nose, thick nose etc.

1972-80’s Camper
These strips were worn below the patch. They have yellow borders
and red lettering on a white background.

1972-80’s Good Camper
These strips were worn below the patch. They have yellow borders
and red lettering on a white background.

To commemorate the 50th anniversary of Camp Emerald Bay, a new
patch was designed using the version of the pirate that had been
used on the staff neckerchief since 1962. The patch is undated
but says "50 YRS".

Explorer Camps, Cruises and Survivals

1957 Cruise
The explorers from Beverly Hills District sponsored a special explorer
event at EB and issued a sateen patch.


A special camp session just for explorers was initiated at EB.
Participants received a silk-screened on felt patch

1957 Explorer Camp Staff
Staff for the 1957 Explorer Camp received an embroidered-on-twill
version of the felt patch issued to participants.

Explorer Camp

Unused supplies of the 1957 Explorer Camp Staff patch were returned
to the manufacturer to have the date re-stitched. The "7" was
turned into an "8" and the restitiched patches were issued
to all attendees of the explorer camp that year.

1959 Explorer Camp
A similar design as the previous years was issued on a yellow background.

Explorer Camp

This patch is the same design as the 1959 patch.

1960 Survival
A special adventure camp was held at Emerald Bay during Christmas
Vacation break. Called the "survival", explorers arrived
on the island and were required to fend for themselves. They
hunted for their own food and endured a very challenging experience.

1961 Survival/Explorer Camp
In 1961, Camp Emerald Bay hosted the southern California Sea Scout
Rendezvous in conjunction with the explorer camp and survival.
Long Beach Area Council started the Rendezvous in the early 1950’s.
Explorers from all over Southern California attended the event.

1962 Explorer Camp
This patch marks a return to the design from previous years.

1963 Explorer Camp
The 1962 design is used with the date changed to 1963.

1965 Survival
The survival may have replaced the explorer camp.

1967 Survival
This year may be the last of the explorer survival camps at EB,
ending a program that took various forms over an eleven year


1952 Area 12A Conference
For the first and only time, Camp Emerald Bay played host to an
Order of the Arrow regional conference. Area 12 A represented
all of the Order of the Arrow Lodges in southern California,
Arizona, Las Vegas and the Panama Canal Zone. Tamet Lodge 225
organized the event for the 2nd time (the first time in 1947
at Camp Josepho). In 1956, the lodges of Los Angeles and Ventura
Counties became Area 12E.


Footnote to Camp Emerald Bay patch history:

The patches of Camp Emerald Bay have been avidly collected for
well over 60 years. The uniqueness of its location, quality of
the camp facility and dedication of its staff members have distinguished
Camp Emerald Bay as one of the premier camps in the entire country.

Images for many of the patches were taken from the Crescent Bay
Council collection section of The National Archive of Twentieth
Century Scouting Insignia. The archive is maintained by The American
Scouting Historical Society.

Information and interviews about the patches have been collected
over a forty-year period and represent the best theories and stories
of a here-to-for unrecorded history of Camp Emerald Bay. A special
thanks goes out to Bill Topkis, Adam Lombard and the late Glen
Gordon for their interest, insight and dedication in preserving
a part of the history of one of the truly special camping experiences
in the USA.

If you have information regarding any patch that was omitted from
the listing or was incorrectly listed, please contact the author, Dr.
Jeff Morley

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